Toxonomically related to rhubarb, has similar constituents and actions.
• chronic skin eruptions due to poor digestion and elimination
• 'bad blood'
• sluggish bowels
• Bowel Tonic
• Laxative (Stimulating)
• Anthraquinone (E.g. Rhein, Emodin, Aloe-Emodin)
• Tincture (1:5, 40% EtOH): 1-4 ml tid
• Decoction (root): 1-2 tsp tid
Side-effects: Red-coloured urine, constipation. Fresh root may lead to nausea, vomiting.
Long-term use: Hypokalemia.
Toxicity: Leaves are high in oxalic acid, which is toxic; may lead to kidney stones.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines, 3rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2007.
Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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