Prostate SAP is targeted as treatment and preventative therapy for any male over the age of 40 to help maintain a healthy prostate and urinary tract system. Prostate SAP can be used to help reduce benign prostatic hypertrophy. Prostate SAP may also be protective against the development of prostate cancer.(12)
Each capsule contains:
Certified organic borage oil (Borago officinalis) ... 280 mg
Certified organic pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo) ...200 mg
(Serenoa repens fruit liposterolic extract) ... 185 mg
Stinging nettle extract (Urtica dioica) ... 120 mg
Rye flower pollen extracts ... 100 mg
Free plant sterols (from Glycine max) ... 100 mg
Providing 40 mg beta-sitosterol,
20 mg campesterol and 20 mg stigmaterol
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
(4.5% proanthocyanidins) ... 50 mg
Mixed tocopherol concentrate ... 37.5 mg
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-phosphate) ... 25 mg
Tomato extract (Solanum lycopersicum) (10% lycopene) ...15 mg
Zinc (from zinc citrate) ... 10 mg
Selenium (from selenomethionine) ... 50 mcg
Non-medicinal ingredients: Certified organic extra virgin oil (100 mg) in a shell made of glycerin, purified water and gelatin.
Contains no: Preservatives, artificial flavour or colour, sugar, dairy, starch, wheat, gluten, yeast, citrus or egg.
The average male will experience a concern with their prostate at some point during their lifetime. The condition known as benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) becomes increasing prevalent in men as they age, with 50% of men experiencing BPH by the age of 60, and 90% of men by the age of 85.(1) This condition can cause a multitude of symptoms including difficulty starting the flow of urine, discomfort with urination, increased risk of urinary tract infections due to urine stagnation in the bladder, which may potentially lead to kidney damage.(2) BPH can interfere with activities of daily living and have a serious impact in a male's life. Several herbs and nutrients have been studied that demonstrate the ability to prevent and treat BPH, and in many cases eliminate symptoms entirely.(3, 5) Prostate cancer will affect 1 in 7 men in their lifetime and is the most common form of cancer detected in males.(19)
PURITY AND STABILITY Third-party testing is preformed on the finished product to ensure Prostate SAP is free of heavy metals, solvents, pesticides and other impurities. Lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH), bladder outlet obstruction and prostate cancer have become increasingly common in the aging male population.(4) BPH affects more than 90% of men by the time they reach 90 years of age.(1) The precise cause of BPH has not yet to be determined but inflammation does play a pivotal role and is the target of many pharmaceuticals designed to treat BPH.(3) Growth of the prostate gland is controlled by the endocrine system, but the precise way each hormone affects the prostate gland is not well understood. During puberty, testosterone is thought to act to enlarge the prostate, but as men age their testosterone levels decline, and this is when the prostate growth often becomes problematic. There is some thought that the ratio between free testosterone and estrogen contributes to prostate enlargement, but this has not to date been demonstrated in the literature. There are several natural compounds that have demonstrated the ability to reduce symptoms caused by BPH.
SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa repens) Saw palmetto is one of the most common herbs used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in males due to BPH. Researchers have determined that saw palmetto has several different mechanisms of action including the inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase, as well as antiandrogenic, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects.(5) Two active components of saw palmetto are oleic and lauric acids: It has been demonstrated that they bind to alpha(1) adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and have the ability to inhibit 5 alpha-reductase.(5) These mechanisms may lead to the therapeutic effect seen in cases of BPH that result in fewer urinary-tract symptoms.(5) A review article exploring the efficacy of saw palmetto compared to placebo for urinary tract symptoms in men found that there was a statistically significant improvement in urinary flow and urinary symptom scores in subjects using saw palmetto.(6) Researchers concluded that saw palmetto was a well-tolerated treatment that provided mild to moderate improvement in urinary symptoms and flow.(6) The efficacy of saw palmetto was also compared to finasteride, a commonly prescribed pharmaceutical for BPH and was found to have similar improvements in urinary symptom scores with fewer adverse effects.(6) Research has also been conducted exploring the role of saw palmetto in prostate cancer. Saw palmetto has been found to have the ability to selectively induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through the intrinsic pathway, via activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.(7)
PUMPKIN SEED OIL A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed over a 12 month period with patients who had BPH with an international prostate symptom score over 88. The international prostate symptom score measures quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate. The groups receiving 320 mg/day of pumpkin seed oil (group B), 320 mg/day saw palmetto (group C) and the group receiving both (group D) all demonstrated an improvement in their score by 3 months.(8) Group D was the only group that had a reduction in serum PSA levels after 3 months.(8) The results of this trial indicated that pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be an effective treatment for BPH, particularly in combination.(8)
RYE POLLEN EXTRACT Clinically, rye pollen extract has been shown to improve symptoms of BPH. Testing exploring the mechanism of action has found that rye pollen most likely exhibits its positive effects by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase and the 5 lipoxygenase activity resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect.(9) The fat-soluble portion of rye pollen also has effects on prostaglandins and leukotrienes and therefore may also have an antiproliferative effect, but this requires further research to be confirmed.(9) STINGING NETTLE (Urtica dioica) A double blind, placebo-controlled study exploring the use of stinging nettle for BPH was conducted using 620 patients.(10) Following the 6 month trial, 81% of patients in the stinging nettle group reported and improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms compared to 16% of controls.(10) The treatment group had an average improvement in their international prostate symptom score from 19.8 to 11.8 compared to a change of 19.2 to 17.7 in the placebo group.(10) Peak flow rates improved on average by 8.2 mL/s in the treatment group compared to 3.4 mL/s in the placebo group.(10) No change was observed in serum PSA or testosterone in either group. There were also no side effects identified in either group.(10) This study's authors concluded that symptomatic BPH could have beneficial effects from treatment with stinging nettle.(10)
PHYTOSTEROLS Phytosterols may be beneficial for the treatment of abacterial prostatitis.(11) A study found that the proliferation of chronic prostatitis was decreased in the group receiving phytosterols. Researchers found that phytosterols were able to reduce serum levels of IL 1 β , TNF α and also reduced the expression of prostate COX 2 and 5 LOX.(11) The results demonstrated that phytosterols have a positive therapeutic effect on abacterial prostatitis.(11)
LYCOPENE There are several pathways that have been identified as playing a role the development of prostate cancer.(12) Free radicals produced from inflammatory processes can potentially lead to oxidative DNA damage, which if unrepaired can become mutagenic.(12) The cytokines IL 6 and IL 4 as well as growth factor signaling pathways have all been identified as contributors to prostate growth.(12) Lycopene modulates several of these pathways; it can reduce inflammatory signals, prevent oxidative damage and modulate the activity androgen signaling and the growth factor axis. These are likely the mechanisms that result in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis that are seen with the use of lycopene.(12)
BORAGE OIL The omega 6 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), found in borage oil has been shown to suppress tumor growth in vitro.(13) Researchers then tested the use of dietary GLA in rats with prostatic adenocarcinomas. Results revealed that the group of rats receiving the GLA had a decrease in prostate growth compared to controls. The control group was also found to have a significant increase in 5S hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and prostaglandin E2 compared to the treatment group.(13) The researchers concluded that a GLA-enriched diet reduces prostate cancer development in rats and could serve as a non-toxic adjunctive treatment for human prostate cancer.(13)
ZINC CITRATE The prostate gland usually contains a high concentration of zinc however levels are dramatically reduced in cases of prostate cancer.(14) Researchers explored the antiproliferative effects of zinc in BPH cells as well as in prostate cancer cells.(14) Both prostate cancer cells and BPH cells were treated with zinc and cell growth, viability and apoptosis were examined.(14) The BPH cells were found to be more sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of zinc when compared to the prostate cancer cells.(14) The variation in response to zinc in the prostate cancer and BPH cells does suggest that zinc may play an important role in the regulation of both cell growth and apoptosis in hyperplastic and prostate cancer cells.(14)
SELENIUM AND VITAMIN E Selenium can play an important role in prostate health, as it helps to maximize the activity of glutathione peroxidase and powerful antioxidant in the body.(15) A trial using healthy middleaged men taking 200 μ g of selenium for 6 weeks found that supplementation raised the activity of both erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase and lowered values of plasma prostatespecific antigen.(15) This effect was not seen in the placebo treatment group. The study indicates that the average male in the US does not consume an adequate amount of selenium in their diet.(15) In a separate study researchers looked at a deficiency of trace elements and the link to PSA values.(16) Results showed that serum selenium, zinc and vitamin E were significantly lower in the prostate cancer patients.(16) Researchers concluded that a deficiency of vitamin E, zinc and selenium may be risk factors for the development of prostate cancer.(16)
VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXAL-5-PHOSPHATE) Researchers have found that vitamin B6 deficiency results in a significant increase in the uptake of testosterone by the prostate gland.(17) This suggests that B6 has a function in the action of testosterone and potentially other steroid hormones were by it either reduces the rate of synthesis of testosterone or increases the metabolic clearance.(17) This may play an important role in the health of the male prostate gland.
CRANBERRY EXTRACT Cranberries are a fruit rich in phytochemicals and polyphenolic compounds. Flavonoids have been shown to induce apoptosis in human prostate tumor cells.(18) Researchers found that the induction of apoptosis in cells occurred with treatment of whole cranberry through caspase 8 mediated cleavage of Bid protein.(18) These findings indicate that cranberry phytochemicals can induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro, so further research is warranted to examine the role of cranberry as an anti-prostate cancer agent.(18) Prostate health is concern for all men. Supplementation of these herbs and nutrients in combination may aid in the protection the prostate gland from developing BPH or prostate cancer and can be used as a treatment for symptoms of BPH.
Adult: Take 1 softgel twice daily or as directed by your health care practitioner. Take with food
to minimize gastric disturbance. Take a few hours before or after taking other medications.
1. WebMD http://www.webmd.com/prostate-cancer/enlarged-prostate viewed Jan 14, 2011
2. Merck Manual Online. http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec21/ch239/ch239b.html viewed Jan 14, 2011
3. Bonvissuto G, Minutoli L, Morgia G, Bitto A, Polito F, Irrera N, Marini H, Squadrito F, Altavilla D. “Effect of Serenoa
repens, lycopene, and selenium on proinflammatory phenotype activation: an in vitro and in vivo comparison
study”. Urology 2011 Jan;77(1):248.e9-16.
4. Roehrborn CG. “Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)”. Med Clin
North Am. 2011 Jan;95(1):87-100.
5. Abe M, Ito Y, Suzuki A, Onoue S, Noguchi H, Yamada S. “Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty
acids from saw palmetto extract”. Anal Sci. 2009 Apr;25(4):553-7.
6. Wilt T, Ishani A, Mac Donald R. “Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.
7. Baron A, Mancini M, Caldwell E, Cabrelle A, Bernardi P, Pagano F. “Serenoa repens extract targets mitochondria
and activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human prostate cancer cells”. BJU Int. 2009 May;103(9):1275-83.
8. Hong H, Kim CS, Maeng S. “Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic
benign prostatic hyperplasia”. Nutr Res Pract. 2009 Winter;3(4):323-7.
9. Loschen G, Ebeling L. “Inhibition of arachidonic acid cascade by extract of rye pollen”. ArzneimittelForschung.
10. Safarinejad MR. “Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, doubleblind,
placebo-controlled, crossover study”. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(4):1-11.
11. Shi H, Cheng L, Zheng X, Tu L. “Study of effects and mechanism of phytosterols on chronic abacterial prostatitis”.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Nov;35(22):3033-7.
12. Wertz K. “Lycopene effects contributing to prostate health”. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(6):775-83.
13. Pham H, Vang K, Ziboh VA. “Dietary gamma-linolenate attenuates tumor growth in a rodent model of prostatic
adenocarcinoma via suppression of elevated generation of PGE(2) and 5S-HETE”. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent
Fatty Acids. 2006 Apr;74(4):271-82.
14. Yan M, Hardin K, Ho E. “Differential response to zinc-induced apoptosis in benign prostate hyperplasia and
prostate cancer cells”. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Aug;21(8):687-94.
15. Zhang W, Joseph E, Hitchcock C, DiSilvestro RA. “Selenium glycinate supplementation increases blood
glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases prostate-specific antigen readings in middle-aged US men”. Nutr
Res. 2011 Feb;31(2):165-8.
16. Adaramoye OA, Akinloye O, Olatunji IK. “Trace elements and vitamin E status in Nigerian patients with prostate
cancer”. Afr Health Sci. 2010 Mar;10(1):2-8.
17. Symes EK, Bender DA, Bowden JF, Coulson WF. “Increased target tissue uptake of, and sensitivity to, testosterone
in the vitamin B6-deficient rat”. J Steroid Biochem. 1984 May;20(5):1089-93.
18. MacLean MA, Scott BE, Deziel BA, Nunnelley MC, Liberty AM, Gottschall-Pass KT, Neto CC, Hurta RA. “North
American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer
cells in vitro”. Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jan;63(1):109-20.
19. http://www.cancer.ca/Canada viewed May 19, 2011
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