• GLA SAP is expected to reduce symptoms of dysmenorrhea and PMS;
• GLA SAP may increase anti-inflammatory prostaglandin synthesis while inhibiting pro inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes;
• GLA SAP can be used to treat atopic dermatitis/eczema;
• Symptoms of fibrocystic breast have also demonstrated improvement with GLA SAP;
• GLA SAP can also be used to assist in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis;
• GLA SAP can be used to help prevent weight gain in previously obese patients following major weight loss.
Each sofgel contains:
Certified Organic Borage Oil ... 1000 mg
Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) 24% ... 240 mg
Oleic Acid ... 168 mg
Linoleic Acid ... 390 mg
Palmitic Acid ... 102 mg
Contains no: preservative, artificial flavor or color, sugar, milk, wheat, corn or yeast.
Borage oil contains the omega-6 fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) at a higher concentration than any other oil source. The essential fatty acids contained in borage oil when absorbed by the body are converted to prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are important for regulating many functions in the body including inflammation, the allergic response, hormone and steroid production. GLA has been well researched and shown to reduce symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea, fibrocystic breast disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis/eczema and asthma. GLA supplementation has also demonstrated the ability to prevent weight gain in previously obese patients. FORM and DOSE to GUARANTEE EFFICACY and SAFETY The borage oil contained in GLA SAP is a natural occurring organic source. PURITY, CLEANLINESS and STABILITY Third party testing is performed on the finished product to ensure GLA SAP is free of heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organics and other impurities. WHAT ARE OMEGA 6 FATTY ACIDS? Omega 6 fatty acids (n 6) are polyunsaturated fatty acids and are considered essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they cannot be synthesized by humans, thus must be obtained from the diet. The n 6 fatty acids include arachidonic acid (AA); exclusively found in animal products, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and linoleic acid (LA); both almost exclusively available from plant sources. Plant sources of n 6 EFAs include: nuts, seeds, grains, safflower, sunflower, sesame, corn and cottonseed. Due to the high content of animal products and AA in the standard western diet, EFA imbalance is commonplace. High AA intake ultimately leads to a skewed formation of the prostaglandin 2 series (PG2) and the hormone LT (4 series) via the phospholipase A2 biochemical pathway. Both PG2 and LT4 are pro-inflammatory, and have been linked to chronic inflammation, arthritis, cardiovascular disorders, asthma, mood disorders, obesity and cancer. WHY BORAGE OIL IS A SUPERIOR N 6 SOURCE? Borage oil (BO) is a vegetable oil that is a rich source of n 6 EFA. BO contains approximately 25–35% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and eicosanoic acid. GLA, if not acquired in the diet, is typically derived from LA via the rate-limiting enzyme delta-6 desaturase, a process which is positively modulated by zinc, magnesium, vitamin B6, vitamin B3 and vitamin E. GLA is in turn metabolized to DGLA, and ultimately anti-inflammatory metabolites, including most notably, the prostaglandin 1 series (PG1). Supplementation of BO provides GLA directly to the biochemical pathway, overcoming the ratelimiting delta-6 desaturase enzyme. Proper n 6 EFA balance and metabolism is critical for the maintenance of cellular health and a balanced inflammatory response. Note: When comparing other sources of GLA (such as evening primrose oil), it is important to consider the stereospecificity of these oils as they are distinct and thereby metabolized differently. GLA is concentrated in the sn 2 position of BO and in the sn 3 position of evening primrose oil. Inflammation plays an important role in health and the pathophysiology of disease. An inflammatory component can be seen in most chronic diseases of modern society, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, etc. The link between diet and disease has become essential in our understanding of the progression of chronic disease. GLA is crucial in the balance of n 6 EFAs and for the production of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids (prostaglandins of series 1 and leukotrienes of series 3). Further exacerbating the inflammatory process is a deficiency in omega 3 (n 3). Thus, a deficiency in both GLA and n 3 contributes to increased incidence of inflammatory disease(1). GLA and its metabolites also affect expression of various genes; whereby regulating the level of gene products plays a significant role in immune function and modulation(2). Supplementing equal amounts of borage oil and fish oil over a 4 week trial improved the n 6:n 3 ratio by 40%, and decreased expression of inflammatory LT4 by 31%(1). This study also reported a decease expression of PI3K α and PI3K γ , along with a reduced expression of several other proinflammatory cytokines(1). This suggests that borage oil has clinical effects by regulating the expression of signal transduction genes, and genes for pro-inflammatory cytokines(1). Other studies exploring the molecular mechanism of GLA in macrophages suggest that GLA inhibits the inflammatory response through inactivation of nuclear factor κ B (NF κ B) and activator protein 1 (AP 1) by suppressing oxidative stress and signal transduction pathways(3). SKIN Human skin is not able to synthesize GLA from the precursor LA or AA; therefore, deficiency of anti-inflammatory n 6 can readily be seen in the skin as lack of integrity, dryness, and itchiness. Supplementing GLA-rich BO allows for efficient metabolism and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The metabolite 15 hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15 HETrE) has anti-proliferation and anti-inflammatory effects(4) by inhibiting the formation of LT4(5). Animal studies confirm that borage oil contributes to the release of 15 HETrE in the epidermis(6, 7) as it has a stereospecificity of sn2. These anti-inflammatory effects have been evident in human skin disorders such as atopic eczema. A double-blind study shows that supplementation of 500 mg borage oil (23% GLA) decreased serum levels of IgE, increased levels of GLA, and DGLA, and decreased the use of topical corticosteroid cream(8). Atopic Dermatitis Area and Severity Index (ADASI) is used to evaluate the severity of atopic eczema. Improved ADASI scores were reported in 71% subjects who were taking BO compared to 20% who were given placebo(9). A study using female subjects showed that supplementing BO for 12 weeks helped to decrease irritation (monitored by reddening on surface and blood flow), decreased roughness and scaling of the skin, and decreased transdermal water loss(10). The effects of 360–720 mg BO supplementation in elderly individuals improved the ratio of DGLA:AA by 23% in two months(11). This translated into decreasing measures of dryness from 42% to 14%, decreased itchiness, and improved transdermal water loss(9). PERIODONTITIS In studying the effects of periodontitis, probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels were measured. Subjects given 3000 mg BO daily (for 12 weeks) showed statistical significance when compared to placebo(12). Results of this study also suggest that borage oil was more effective than fish oil in treating periodontitis. ASTHMA Asthma may be an acute or chronic inflammatory condition. Leukotrienes are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, and many pharmaceuticals used to treat asthma alter leukotriene levels. Studies show that supplementation of 2.0 g daily GLA (borage oil) had positive effects on reducing the inflammatory markers in polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN)(13). In another study, 1.5 g/d GLA (borage oil) decreased LT synthesis within 2 weeks, and after a 2 week washout, LT levels returned to baseline(14). Circulating DGLA is efficiently incorporated in the PMN lipids(15). Supplementing BO proved to increase levels of DGLA and 15 HETrE(13). DGLA released from PMN is metabolized to 15 HETrE. Studies show that providing DGLA and/or 15 HETrE before PMN stimulation inhibits the production of LT4(5, 10). Furthermore, enhanced anti-inflammatory effects are seen in PMNs because they lack delta 5 desaturase, therefore PMN content of AA does not increase(14). It is also recognized that GLA can be beneficial in treating acute lung injury by improving gas exchange, respiratory dynamics, and requirement for ventilation(16). ARTHRITIS Arthritis is an inflammatory condition that may be experienced as subtle symptoms of discomfort, to extreme pain during flare-ups. Diets rich in AA aggravate arthritic conditions via an increase in pro-inflammatory mediators such as PG2 and LT4. Pharmaceutically, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are used to inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway which promotes the production of PG2. NSAIDS do not have any impact on the production of LT4, which are metabolized via 5 lipoxygenase. The addition of GLA in the diet intake has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting levels of LT4 via production of 15 HETrE. Supplementation of BO has shown to be effective at decreasing inflammation in human studies(17). A double-blind study showed that GLA was effective at increasing levels of prostaglandin E, thereby increasing cAMP and suppressing TNF α (18), which has been shown to be a central mediator of inflammation and the joint destructive process in rheumatoid arthritis. As a prostaglandin E agonist, there has been speculation that GLA supplementation may have teratogenic characteristics and labour-inducing effects, and should therefore be contraindicated in pregnancy. PMS Dysmenorrhea (menstrual pain) is a condition experienced by women of reproductive age. Poor conversion of DGLA to prostaglandin E1 has been exhibited in dysmenorrheic subjects when compared to control subjects(19). Results of this study suggest that dietary modifications including supplementation with GLA, may be an effective alternative to pharmaceutical interventions in the management of dysmenorrhea(19). WEIGHT MANAGEMENT The incidence of obesity in North America has been increasing. Proper absorption and metabolism of nutrients has become a focus in the literature. Specifically, the metabolism of EFAs and their balance as they contribute to cell membrane integrity, is a topic receiving increasing attention. Lipid levels influence lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Adiposity is positively correlated with CRP levels, waist girth and visceral fat(20), suggesting that adiposity contributes to low grade chronic inflammation. PUFAs are essential to the diet, and n 3 EFAs and GLA have been shown to decrease inflammation. GLA has been implicated in the maintenance of a healthy weight and body composition. In a comparative study, subjects received either 5 g BO or 5 g olive oil (control) daily. Measured results after 12 months showed that subjects supplemented with borage oil regained one quarter the body weight compared controls(20). A follow-up study involved controls crossing over from olive oil to borage oil. Results showed that weight gain between 15 33 months to be 6.48 ?1.79 kg (GLA-GLA) and 6.04 ?2.52 kg (control-GLA)(20), demonstrating that GLA is effective at maintaining weight.
90 softgels per bottle
1–3 softgels daily with meals or as directed by your health care practitioner.
BO is generally well tolerated and few side effects are reported. Minor gastrointestinal complaints
may include soft stools, flatulence and belching. Headaches have been sparingly reported.
Caution is advised in combining interventions that are anti-hypertensive, anti-coagulant, antiplatelet,
or with the use of NSAIDS. Caution should also be taken if pregnant.
1. Weaver KL, Ivester P, Seeds M, Case LD, Arm JP, Chilton FH. Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene
expression in healthy humans. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jun 5;284(23):15400-7.
2. Kapoor R, Huang YS. Gamma linolenic acid: an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006
3. Chang CS, Sun HL, Lii CK, Chen HW, Chen PY, Liu KL. Gamma-linolenic acid inhibits inflammatory responses by
regulating NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Inflammation.
4. Johnson, MM., Swan, DD, Surette, ME, Stegner J, Chilton T, Fontech AN & Chilton FH. Dietary supplementation with
γ -linolenic acid alters fatty acid content and eicosanoid production in healthy humans. J. Nutr. 1997. 127:1435-1444.
5. Chilton-Lopez T, Surette ME, Swan DD, Fontech AN, Johnson MM, Chilton FH. Metabolism of gamma-linolenic acid in
human neutrophils. J Immunol. 1996 156:2941-7.
6. Jensen, M. M., Sorensen, H. & Hoy, C. E. Influence of triglycerol structure and fatty acid profile of dietary fats on milk
triacylglycerols in the rat: a two-generation study. Lipids. 1996. 31:187-192
7. Chung S, Kong S, Seong K, Cho Y. Gamma-linolenic acid in borage oil reverses epidermal hyperproliferation in guinea
pigs. J Nutr. 2002 Oct;132(10):3090-7.
8. Henz BM, Jablonska S, Van de Kerkhof PC, Stingl G, Blascyk M, Vandervalk PG, Veenhuizen, R, Muggli R, &
Raederstorff D. Double-blind multicentre analysis of the efficacy of borage oil in patients with atopic eczema. Br. J.
Dermatol. 1999. 140:685-688
9. Bahmer FA, SchÄfer J. Treatment of atopic dermatitis with borage seed oil (Glandol)--a time series analytic study.
Kinderarztl Prax. 1992 Oct;60(7):199-202.
10. De Spirt S, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Sies H, Bejot M, Maurette JM, Heinrich U. Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil
supplements modulates skin condition in women. Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb;101(3):440-5. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
11. Brosche T, Platt D. Effect of borage oil consumption on fatty acid metabolism, transepidermal water loss and skin
parameters in elderly people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2000 Mar-Apr;30(2):139-50.
12. Rosenstein ED, Kushner LJ, Kramer N, Kazandjian G. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment
of adult periodontitis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003 Mar;68(3):213-8.
13. Ziboh VA, Naguwa S, Vang K, Wineinger J, Morrissey BM, Watnik M, Gershwin ME. Suppression of leukotriene B4
generation by ex-vivo neutrophils isolated from asthma patients on dietary supplementation with gammalinolenic acidcontaining
borage oil: possible implication in asthma. Clin Dev Immunol. 2004 Mar;11(1):13-21.
14. Surette ME, Kournesis MS, Edens MB, Tramposch KM, Chilton FH. Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis, pharmacokinetics,
and tolerability of a novel dietary fatty acid formulation in healthy adult subjects. Clin Therapeutics. 2003;25:948-71.
15. Chilton FH, Rudel LL, Parks JS, Arm JP Seeds MC. Mechanism by which botanical lipids affect inflammatory
disorders(1-4). Am J Clinical Nutr 2008(suppl):498S-503S.
16. Singer, Pierre MD; Theilla, Myriam RN; Fisher, Haran MD; Gibstein, Lilly MD; Grozovski, Elad MD; Cohen, Jonathan
MD. Benefit of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid in ventilated patients with
acute lung injury. Critical Care Medicine. April 2006 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 - pp 1033-1038
17. Belch JJ, Hill A. Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatiologic conditions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000, Jan;71(1
18. Kast RE. Borage oil reduction of rheumatoid arthritis activity may be mediated by increased cAMP that suppresses
tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Int Immunopharmol. 2001 Nov;1(12):2197-9.
19. Wu CC, Huang MY, Kapoor R, Chen CH, Huang YS. Metabolism of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in women
with dysmenorrhea. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:216-9.
20. Schirmer MA, Phinney SD. Gamma-linolenate reduces weight regain in formerly obese humans. J Nutr. 2007
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